DIET AND DENTAL CARIES
Dr. Bibi Halima Shamaz
Wilson garden, Bengaluru Jan 31, 2017
Food is a complex chemical mixture of organic and inorganic material containing both diet and nutrients.
DIET: Diet is the total intake of substances that provide nutrition and energy. It may be dairy or milk group, meat or poultry group, vegetable or fruit group, and bread and cereal group.
NUTRITION: Nutrition is a science of how the body utilizes food to meet the requirements for development, growth, repairs and maintenance.
COMPONENTS OF FOODS:
The evidence linking diet and dental caries can be summarized under following headings.
It was found that caries was present since about 5 million year in South Africa in hominids in Neolithics. Interestingly dietary pattern was not known. Eskimos skulls were free from caries.
1.Tristan – da – Cunha study: This is a remote rocky island in South Atlantic region. Before 1930 and 1940 onwards showed no evidence of dental caries in these region because of consumption of raw diet.But after volcanic eruption in 1964, they moved to other areas where they developed dental caries because of change in dietary habits.
2. During World War II: Due to sugar restriction in World War II (1939 – 1944) dental caries reduced among civilians. At the same time, the dental caries experience among army personnel was increased due to increased sugar consumption.
3. Hereditary Fructose Intolerance (HFI): 1956 – This is an autosomal recessive disorder of fructose metabolism. Patients having intolerance to fructose, avoid fructose and fructose containing dietary factors. Because, consumption of fructose causes malaise, nausea, vomiting, sweating, cramps, tremors, convulsions, coma and finally death.
Anmal Studies:Orland et al (1954) did a study on rats. He showed that germfree rats fed on carbohydrates produced no caries.