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Diabetes

Medikoe Health Expert

Medikoe Health Expert

  Koramangala, bengaluru, karnataka, india, Bengaluru     Feb 9, 2017

   5 min     

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Diabetes: Symptoms, Complications and Preventions

Diabetes Mellitus is defined as a group of diseases that has a significant effect on how your body utilises the blood sugar or glucose. Well, glucose is known to be one of the essential sources that give energy to the cells in making up the muscles as well as tissues. Besides, it is one of the primary causes of fuel for your brain.

It is a lifelong disease caused by the high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. It can occur at any stage. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults.

What is Insulin?

It is a hormone produced in the pancreas by individual cells called beta. The pancreas is found below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. With type 1 diabetes, beta cells produce little or no insulin. Glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells without having enough insulin. The process of building up of glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia.

When the body is unable to use glucose for energy, then this leads to the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease and the exact cause of this unknown. This is a condition that occurs when the immune system triggers and destroys healthy body tissue and cells in the pancreas that make insulin.

Insulin lowers blood sugar by allowing it to leave the bloodstream and enter cells. Everyone who has type 1 diabetes must take insulin every day. Insulin must be injected under the skin using a syringe, insulin pen, or insulin pump. It cannot be taken by mouth because the acid in the stomach destroys insulin.

You may need insulin shots 1 to 4 times a day. You can check your blood sugar glucose by using a glucose meter. You prick your finger with a small needle called a lancet to get a tiny drop of blood. You place the blood on a test strip and put the piece into the meter. The meter gives you a reading that tells you the level of your blood sugar.

Symptoms of Diabetes 

The symptoms of diabetes vary depending on how much of the blood sugar is elevated. If a person has Type 1 diabetes, he may suffer from HIGH BLOOD SUGAR. Some of the symptoms tend to come quickly in this type of diabetes include: 

  • Increased thirst

  • Extreme hunger

  • Unexplained loss in weight 

  • Frequent urination 

  • Irritability

  • Blurred vision 

  • Slow-healing sores

  • Fatigue 

  • Constant gum, skin, or vaginal infections

  • Rapid breathing

  • The fruity odour of the breath

  • Numbness in feet

  • Nausea or Vomiting

  • Stomach-ache

Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age; however, in most cases, it appears either during childhood or in the adolescent stage. While, on the other hand, type 2 diabetes is known to be a common type of diabetes that can also develop at any age but usually occurs in people aged 40 or order.

It has been identified that the symptoms of type 2 diabetes usually appears when the blood sugar level of a person falls below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). 

Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes include:

  • Headache

  • Hunger

  • Nervousness

  • Rapid heartbeat

  • Shaking

  • Sweating

Risk Factors of Diabetes 

The risk factors usually depend on what type of diabetes does the person have. Below we have listed the risk factors associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Risk factors associated with Type 1 Diabetes:

However, the exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unclear; there are certain factors that may give you the signs that you are at an increased risk of developing this condition. These risk factors include:

  • Family history is one of the most critical elements of risk to develop type 1 diabetes. If your parent or sibling has diabetes, you are possibly at an increased risk of becoming diabetic.

  • Environmental factors such as exposure to viral illness play some role in causing type 1 diabetes.

  • Geography is also one of the significant factors that play a vital role in developing this condition. Countries like Sweden and Finland have a higher rate of type 1 diabetes.

  • Antibodies present in your body damaging the immune system.

Risk Factors associated with Type 2 Diabetes:

However, the exact causes and elements of the condition like prediabetes or type 2 diabetes are unknown, but some of the common factors that have been given by the researchers include:

  • Weight

  • Family History

  • Race 

  • Age 

  • PCOS

  • Gestational Diabetes

  • Inactivity

  • High Blood Pressure 

  • Abnormal Cholesterol Level

Risk Factors associated with Gestational Diabetes:

Any woman can develop gestational diabetes during her pregnancy, but some women are usually at a higher risk of developing this disease. Some of the risk factors associated with Gestational Diabetes include:

  • Being overweight during pregnancy increases the chance or risk of getting gestational diabetes.

  • Women older than the age of 25 have more risk of getting gestational diabetes.

  • If you have diabetes in your family history, it is known to be one of the most common risk factors to develop gestational diabetes. 

What are the Complications of Diabetes?

In diabetes, long-term complications usually develop gradually. Eventually, the difficulties of diabetes cause disability in you or can also be a life-threatening condition. Some of the possible complications of diabetes include are as follows.

Complications of Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes 

  • Nerve damage due to excess amount of sugar in your blood

  • Kidney damage 

  • Eye damage

  • Cardiovascular disease

  • Depression

  • Skin conditions 

  • Foot damage

  • Hearing impairment

  • Alzheimer’s diseases 

Complications of Gestational Diabetes

Most women who are suffering from the condition of gestational diabetes and deliver babies, their sugar level may become out of control and leads of the health issues in her as well as her baby. The complications associated with gestational diabetes include:

  • Low blood sugar level

  • Type 2 diabetes later in life

  • Excess growth of the baby

  • Baby’s death either before or shorter after the delivery

When to See a Doctor 

If you suspect that either you or your child may have diabetes and notice any of the symptoms that give you the signs of diabetes, make sure that you consult your doctor as soon as possible. If the condition is diagnosed at an earlier stage, your healthcare provider begins the treatment sooner.

Besides, if you have already been diagnosed with diabetes, make sure that after receiving the diagnosis, it is vital for you to seek medical follow-up timely until the level of your blood sugar gets stabilised. 

Tags:  Diabetics,diabetes ,blood, blood sugar, diabetes, weight loss, insulin

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