Everything You Need to Know About Brain Tumour
Medikoe Health Expert
Koramangala, bengaluru, karnataka, india, Bengaluru Feb 9, 2017
What is Brain Tumour?
A tumour is a mass of tissue that is formed by an accumulation of abnormal cells. A brain tumour is a growth of abnormal cells in your brain. Tumour cells grow, even when the body does not need them, and they don't die.
Brain tumours can be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). When benign or malignant tumours grow, they cause the pressure inside our skulls to increase in mass. It can cause brain damage, and it can be life-threatening. Brain tumours are divided as primary or secondary. A primary brain tumour originates in the brain. Many primary brain tumours are benign. A secondary brain tumour, also known as a metastatic brain tumour, occurs when cancer cells spread to the brain from another organ, such as your lung or breast.
Types of Brain Tumour
The most common type of primary brain tumour among adults are astrocytoma, meningioma, oligodendroglioma.
Astrocytoma: It arises from star-shaped glial cells called astrocytes, and it rises in the cerebrum.
Meningioma: The tumour arises in the meninges. It can be grade I, II, or III. It is usually benign (grade I) and grows slowly.
Oligodendroglioma: The tumour arises from cells that make the fatty substance that covers and protects nerves and usually occurs in the cerebrum. It's most common in middle-aged adults. It can be grade II or III.
The most common type of primary brain tumours in children is medulloblastoma, grade I or II astrocytomas, ependymoma, and brain stem glioma.
Medulloblastoma: The tumour usually arises in the cerebellum, and sometimes it is called a primitive neuroectodermal tumour. It is grade IV.
Grade I or II astrocytoma: In children, it occurs anywhere in the brain. Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma is most common in children, and it is Grade I.
Ependymoma: The tumour arises from cells that line the ventricles or the central canal of the spinal cord. It's most commonly found in children and young adults. It can be grade I, II, or III.
Brain stem glioma: It occurs in the lowest part of the brain. It can be a low-grade or high-grade tumour, and the most common type is diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma
Brain Tumour Grades
Doctors group brain tumours by grade. The grade of a tumour refers to the way the cells look under a microscope:
Grade I: The tissue is benign, and the cells look nearly like normal brain cells, and they grow slowly.
Grade II: The tissue is malignant, and the cells look less like normal cells than do the cells in a Grade I tumour.
Grade III: The malignant tissue has cells that look very different from normal cells. The abnormal cells are actively growing (anaplastic).
Grade IV: The malignant tissue has cells that look most abnormal and tend to proliferate.
Symptoms of Brain Tumour
The symptoms of a brain tumour depend on tumour size, type, and location. Symptoms may be caused when a tumour presses on a nerve or harms a part of the brain. Symptoms are headache, nausea, vomiting Changes in speech, vision, or hearing, the problem in walking, changes in mood and personality, Problems with memory, muscle jerking or twitching, numbness in arms and legs, changes in speech, vision or hearing.
Brain Tumour Diagnosis
Neurologic exam: Doctor Checks vision, hearing, alertness, muscle strength, coordination, and reflexes and also examines eyes to look for swelling caused by the tumour.
MRI: Some special dye is injected into a blood vessel in the arm or hand to help show differences in the tissues of the brain
CT scan - CT scans are special x-rays that produce cross-sectional images of the body and are also referred to as computerised axial tomography.
Angiogram: It is an x-ray procedure that can be both diagnostic as well as therapeutic. An angiogram is mainly considered to be a gold standard to evaluate blockages in the arterial system.
Spinal tap: Doctor takes a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid that fills the spaces in and around the brain and spinal cord) to check cancer fluid cells.
Biopsy: The removal of tissue to look for tumour cells is called a biopsy.