What is cystitis?
Kalyan nagar, Bengaluru Feb 14, 2017
How does it occur?
Intestinal bacterial infection is the most frequent cause of cystitis, usually in women, who have a very short urethra. Normally, urine does not includeany micro-organisms, such as bacteria present. Between 20 to 40 percent of women get cystitis once in their lifetime.
Sometimes it's possible to have bacteria in the bladder without any symptoms, usually in elderly.There can be several reasons for the bacteria gettingto the bladder.Inadequate emptying of bladder results in stagnation of urine that may lead to infection. This may be caused by some antidepressant drugs, immobility and constipation.Even the small drop that may be left behind can contain bacteria.
Conditions that may make it easier for the bacteria to travel through the urethra include:
- Toilet hygiene
This is especially common among women and girls due to their shorter urethra than men and it is situated relatively close to their anus.Women and girls must dry themselves completely to avoid chances of bacteria getting from their intestine into their urethra.
- Congenital deformity in the urinary system
In the case of recurring infections of the urinary system, mostly among boys and young men, they should get it checked for a congenital deformity(present from birth) somewhere in the urinary system that interrupts complete emptying of the bladder.
- People with a catheter
Any person with a catheter has chances of bacteria in their bladder, usually without symptoms.While changing the catheter, small damaged areas may appear, which increases the danger of cystitis and possible blood infection.
- Men with an enlarged prostate
An enlarged prostate in the elderly males prevents the bladder from emptying completely.Other conditions like prostatitis and urethritis (infection in the urethra) may give rise to similar infections in the younger male.
- Pregnant women
In case a pregnant woman has bacteria in her urine, it should be cultured twice, regardless of whether or not she has any symptoms. There is the risk of kidney infection and pre-term delivery, if near the due date.
- 'Honeymoon' cystitis
This can be in women with increased frequency of sexual activity. The bacteria on our skin, during sexual intercourse these bacteria near the urethral opening, may get into the urethra and bladder where they may cause cystitis.
- Sexually transmitted infection
Chlamydia and gonorrheainfections may cause symptoms similar to cystitis. Also, there's usually a vaginal discharge or bleeding after sexual intercourse and answollen cervix.Cystitislike symptoms may appear among young sexually active men or women,due to sexually transmitted infections and immediate medical advice should be needed.
- Postmenopausal women
Due to lack of female sex hormones at postmenopausal stage in women, lots of changes take place in the whole body. Asa consequence of this the urinary system is more easily irritated by cystitis.
What are the symptoms of cystitis?
Burning or pain during urination.
Frequent urination feeling.
Pain directly above the pubic bone.
Cloudy and foul-smelling urine.
Smaller children often have less particular symptoms, like weakness, irritability, reduced appetite and vomiting.
Older women may also have symptoms like weakness, falls, confusion or fever.
Occasionally bloodyurine may be visible.
Advice to prevent cystitis
- It is good to drink sufficiently so as to flush the bladder thoroughly.
- The bladder should be emptied completely during urination. Proper posture should be there while urinating.
- It may be helpful to drink cranberry juice every day than to take capsules. This simple and natural treatment certainly helps to reduce the frequency of recurring infections. It is believed that the cranberry juice prevents common bacteria from sticking to the walls of the bladder,therefore preventing infection taking hold.
- Urinating immediately following sexual intercourse will flushes out most bacteria from the urethra.
- Try to urinate at least once every 2-3 hours. Women, who avoid urination for long periods, tend to suffer from more infections of the urinary system.