Organophosphates Induced Brain Disorders
Medikoe Health Expert
Koramangala, bengaluru, karnataka, india, Bengaluru Nov 21, 2018
Organophosphate is a chemical substance which is produced by the esterification process between alcohol and phosphoric acid. It is a class of insecticide is widely applied in the home, public health programs, factory, farm, garden, and therefore associated with the risk of acquiring in exposed populations.
Brain disorder is caused by Organophosphate (OP) and can be described as progressive damage to the brain which results from the cholinergic neuronal excitotoxicity and dysfunction caused by OP-induced irreversible AChE inhibition.
Organophosphates Induced Neurotoxicity
Organophosphates severely damage the mind and deliver an impact on behavioral patterns and neurological activities in exposed people. The specific form of injury is cholinergic dysfunction associated with learning and cognitive deficits, neuropathogenic and neuropsychological performance. Exposure to organophosphate, including monocrotophos, dichlorvos and, chlorpyrifos has been widely reported due to its full usage and bearing as a contaminant in food and nutrient products.
Organophosphate Induced Oxidative Stress and Alzheimer’s Disease
Organic phosphates caused by the propagation of free radicals associated with increased oxidative stress in humans are advised as a single of the primary mechanisms of their neurotoxic changes. Amyloid β protein has been proven to be a significant element in increasing oxidative stress linked with raised levels of lipid peroxidation products, including 4-hydroxynoneal, malonaldehyde, (HNE) and acrolein. These toxic products, resulting from oxidative stress, alter the cellular structure and physiological role of the mental capacity and lead to neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease.
Organophosphate Induced Neuronal Loss via Apoptosis
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme involved in synaptic transmission, is the primary goal of organophosphate action. They irreversibly inhibit AChE activity and cause accumulation of acetylcholine levels in synaptic crossing, resulting in desensitization of receptors and finally cell death and paralysis.
Organophosphate-induced Inflammation and Alzheimer’s disease
The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis and etiology of Alzheimer's disease is indicated. The activation of the above mentioned inflammatory cytokines is due to the expanded oxidative stress that may include in the process of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. The inflammatory response is mainly expressed in the activation of macrophages, glial cells, and oligodendrocytes in the brain linked to the triggering of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18 and IL-33 and associated with the autoimmunity, infection, neuroinflammation, and related disorders. These activated microglia participate in the process of programmed cell death and death of the neuron through the secretion of various proinflammatory molecules and cytokines.
Prevention and Suggestions
Due to the irregularities in safety measures, the risk of human exposure to organophosphates is increasing more in developing countries. As there is a high risk of neurotoxic effects of these organophosphate compounds on human health, particularly in children's development, it deserves the attention of regulatory agencies and preventive bodies. It is necessary to build up protective measures for farm workers and other professionals who are professionally displayed to these pesticides. Training and seminars on these pesticides, including organophosphates for consumer information and grooming in the agricultural sectors and public health programs, should be conducted.