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Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD), Know everything about it

Dr. A. V. Lohit

Dr. A. V. Lohit

  Basaveshwaranagar, Bengaluru     Jun 16, 2017

   8 min     


Sexually Transmitted Disease or STD, you have Goosebumps after hearing the term; don’t you? Nobody likes talking about it certainly, but it is critically important that people should talk about it and gather as much information as possible.

Why is it so critical to know about it? Do you know an amazing fact? According to the American Sexual Health Association, almost 50 percent of the people get infected by some or the other sexually transmitted disease. It is important that one should recognize the signs and symptoms of STD so that you can treat the infection before it becomes a major health risk. Here is a list of some of the major STDs.


If you read about various sexually transmitted diseases that are a nuisance to the human health, then perhaps Chlamydia is the top-most cursed diseases. Yes, it is irritable and troublesome. This bacterial infection is quite common amongst sexually active young adults. The nasty bacteria Chlamydia Trachomatis is responsible for all the trouble. The unisex bacterial infection affects men and women of all ages without any discrimination. However, there is a high probability of teen and young people (especially girls) getting affected by it.

It is a silent attacker who remains hidden in the body without a single symptom. As soon as it gets the chance to multiply, the population increases and you feel the dreadful effects.

When doctors suspect the presence of Chlamydia Trachomatis, they perform diagnostic tests to isolate the problem. The symptoms of Urethritis are quite common in men. Sometimes, infections of testes and epididymis are also caused by it. Antibiotics can cure the diseases but there is always a possibility of reoccurrence of the problem.


Can you imagine a situation when a disease remains hidden in the body without showing a smallest of the symptoms? Yes, Gonorrhea is one of the awful diseases in this category.  If you Google it, then you will find that the disease is the second-most common disease as far as Sexually Transmitted Diseases are concerned. Since the disease may lead to infertility if untreated, one shouldn’t take it lightly in any case.

Sometimes, it shows burning sensation and pain during urination. These are the signs of Urethritis. It also causes infection in the throat and the rectum. If it remains untreated, then the symptoms of rashes and joint pain occur throughout the body. Antibiotics are used to keep the outbreak under control. Typically, Cefixime is given during the treatment. However, doctors use a combination of drugs to control the disease as fast as possible. It affects both men and women.


Trichomoniasis is caused by a parasite which is known as Trichomonas Vaginalis. This sexually transmitted disease affects men and women both. Like other diseases, this ailment also doesn’t have any symptoms, and it remains hidden for a long time.

You may be surprised to know that the ailment shows symptoms that mock other diseases and even your physician might get confused with it. Typically, itching or burning sensation and discharge are the symptoms reported by patients.  Doctors often misinterpret it as Urethra. The disease is cured by antibiotic medicines such as Metronidazole and Tinidazole. Though it is a generic statement, doctors do a detailed investigation and diagnosis to prescribe the right kind of medicine and the right potency.

When patients report the symptoms, doctors have to perform a series of investigations to isolate the exact problem. Since diseases show overlapping symptoms, it is very much necessary that the investigations are accurate.


The disease is perhaps the deadliest of all STDs because it results in a sure death. Since there are several other ways people may get infected by HIV other than sexual relations, it becomes furthermore critical to know about the problem. This disease attacks the immune system and causes a dysfunction into it. Time taken to collapse the immune system totally is between 10 to 15 years. The disease causes no symptoms at all except a few people who show flu-like illness after getting infected. As the immune system gets impacted completely, unusual complications, certain types of cancers and Dementia are also seen.

HIV doesn’t have treatment, and one meets death eventually. Hence, it is utmost important to take precautions to avoid the infection. Though research is going on worldwide from quite a long time, no significant breakthrough has been achieved so far.

Genital herpes

You can’t even imagine the trouble and pain caused by blistering sores in the sexually exposed areas. Yes, it is more painful than you can imagine. HSV Type 1 and HSV Type 2 are two types of viruses. The first one cause normal cold sores around the mouth and the second one cause Genital Herpes. However, both can cause infections in the genital area. The first outbreak of HSV infection is quite severe, but subsequent outbreaks are relatively mild.

Like all other sexually transmitted diseases, Genital Herpes also doesn’t show specific symptoms. The virus remains in an inactive stage for years before it shows the presence. The frequency and severity of the outbreak vary from person to person. Effective antiviral drugs shorten the duration and severity of outbreaks. Hence, they are recommended for those who face frequent eruptions. A tingling sensation in the genital organs and sores around the genital parts or thighs are the common symptoms.

HPV or Genital Wart

You will be amazed to know that HPV is not a single disease but a group of infections. Some HPV infections cause simple warps, and they are not considered STD. Some infections spread during sexual relations, and they cause genital warts. The majority of the times, the infection don’t develop genital warts and the body clears the infections on its own.

Can you imagine that you had infected by the HPV virus some point in life? Yes, it is true. Thankfully, it gets cured automatically, and we do not know about it.

When the virus affects the genital organs, you have soft and lumpy bumps. Though the bumps are small in most of the cases, they may become large sometimes. The bumps have a cauliflower-like appearance which is the major characteristic of this disease.

Nowadays, vaccination is available for it which offers immunity from the disease. Research is going on for further effective methods.


Do you want to know which STD is the deadliest amongst all? Though all are problematic, but Hepatitis family is the most dangerous one. It is nothing but inflammation of the liver. There are three types of Hepatitis and type B, and type C is transmitted through sexual contact. Just like HIV, these deadly infections also transfer through the exchange of blood.

HBV is also a silent killer. It means, there are virtually no symptoms immediately after infection. However, around half of the cases show acute symptoms later.

What makes this the nastiest ailment? Because it affects a part which is most crucial for our survival; the liver. About 5 to 10 percent people face long-term damage of the liver which is nothing but Hepatitis B, and that too chronic. It also gets converted into Liver cancer in the majority of the cases.

The vaccine is available for Hepatitis B. Supportive care and rest are the treatment methods. In the case of chronic Hepatitis, interferon of antiviral treatment is considered the only remedy.

The third variant Hepatitis C mainly spreads by contact with the blood of the infected person. Cases have been found when it transmitted through sexual relations. Delayed symptoms cause a missed diagnosis. In more than 75 percent cases, the chronic infection causes the damage of the liver. You don’t have any vaccination available for this variant.


Treponema pallidum bacteria are responsible for the outbreak of this disease. You should be aware of a very important fact about Syphilis. When it is not treated timely, Syphilis becomes chronic. It develops through three stages and becomes incredibly difficult to deal with. You should be aware of another important aspect; the disease may remain in a latent stat for quite a long time.

What is the first sign of the disease? It is an ulcer (normally painless) on the genital organs. It is called Chancre. The infection develops in 10 days to three months which gets subsided in three to six weeks.

Antibiotics can treat the problem during the first stage. However, the problem becomes real severe if it enters the second stage. The disease spreads to other organs, and many symptoms erupt all of a sudden. Skin rashes, arthritis, liver problems, kidney diseases, and swollen lymph nodes are a few examples.

The infection remains latent after the second stage and retaliates with the tertiary infection. It is the deadliest of the stages which can cause brain infections, loss of sight and deafness.  Rashes over most parts of the body are the differentiating characteristic of the second stage of Syphilis. Muscle ache and flat warts are also complained by some patients. Eye inflammation and blurred vision are also complained by some patients. In the second stage, symptoms appear and disappear intermittently.

By this time, you must have understood the importance of timely treatment. You have a sigh of relief to know the fact that there is an effective treatment available for the problem. The most critical aspect is, one shouldn’t take it lightly and should consult a seasoned doctor.

Tags:  Sexual Health - Female, Sexual Health - Male, ,

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