Test and Diagnosis for Diabetes
Dr Paramesh S
Kalyan nagar, Bengaluru Feb 22, 2017
Diabetes appears suddenly and is often the reason for checking blood sugar levels. The ADA recommends that the following people be screened for diabetes:
- Anyone with a body mass index higher than 25, regardless of age.
- Anyone older than age 45.
Test for Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes are prediabetes
Glycated Hemoglobin (A1C) Test: It indicates average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin. The higher the blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you’ll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5% or higher on two separate tests indicates that you have diabetes. An A1C between 5.7% and 6.4% indicates prediabetes. Below 5.7 is considered normal.
If the patient is pregnant or has an uncommon form of hemoglobin, the doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes.
Random Blood Sugar Test: A blood sample is taken at a random line regardless of the time you last ate. A random sugar level of 200 mg/dl or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes.
Fasting blood sugar test: A blood sample is taken after an overnight fast. If a fasting blood sugar level is 126 mg/dl or higher on two separate tests then it indicates diabetes. If it is between 100 to 125 mg/dl then it is considered as prediabetes.
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: In this first overnight fasting blood glucose level is measured then patient drinks a sugary liquid and blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next two hours. A reading more than 200mg/dl indicates diabetes and a reading between 140 to 199 mg/dl indicates prediabetes.
If type 1 diabetes is confirmed then urine test is done to look for the presence of by-product produced when muscle and fat tissue are when the body doesn’t have enough insulin to use available glucose.
Pregnant women who do not have diabetes previously should be tested for gestational diabetes. Tests for Gestational Diabetes include:
Glucose Challenge Test: In this blood is drawn from the body after one hour of drinking a syrupy glucose solution. After one hour, you will have a blood test to measure blood sugar level. A blood sugar level below 140 mg/dl is considered normal.
Follow-up glucose tolerance testing: In this after the overnight fast, fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then another sweet solution is given with higher concentration of glucose and then blood sugar level is checked every hour for a period of three hours.