Type 1 Diabetes: Symptoms and Causes
Dr Paramesh S
Kalyan nagar, Bengaluru Feb 9, 2017
It is a lifelong disease caused by high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. It can occur at any stage. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults.
It is a hormone produced in the pancreas by special cells called beta. The pancreas are found below and behind the stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. With type 1 diabetes, beta cells produce little or no insulin. Glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells, without having enough insulin. The process of building up of glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia. When the body is unable to use the glucose for energy then this leads to the symptoms of type 1 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease and the exact cause of this unknown. This is a condition that occurs when the immune system trigger and destroys healthy body tissue and cells in the pancreas that make insulin.
Insulin lowers blood sugar by allowing it to leave the bloodstream and enter cells. Everyone suffering from type 1 diabetes must take insulin every day.
Insulin must be injected under the skin using a syringe, insulin pen, or insulin pump. It cannot be taken by mouth because the acid in the stomach destroys insulin.
You may need insulin shots 1 to 4 times a day. You can check your blood sugar glucose by using glucose meter. You prick your finger with a small needle called a lancet to get a tiny drop of blood. You place the blood on a test strip and put the strip into the meter. The meter gives you a reading that tells you the level of your blood sugar.
If person is having Type 1 diabetes, he may suffer from HIGH BLOOD SUGAR and have following symptoms:
Felling thirsty, hungry, tired all the time, blurry eyesight, numbness in feet, losing weight, urinating more often, rapid breathing, dry skin and mouth, flushed face, fruity breath odour, Nausea or vomiting and Stomach pain.
If a person is having Type 1 diabetes, he may suffer from LOW BLOOD SUGAR and have following symptoms:
Symptoms usually appear when a person's blood sugar level falls below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Symptoms are:
Headache, hunger, nervousness, rapid heartbeat, shaking and sweating.
Diabetes damages the nerves, so people with diabetes are more likely to have foot problems. Diabetes can also damage blood vessels. Small sores or breaks in the skin may become deeper skin sores (ulcers). To prevent problems with your feet:
Stop smoking, use moisturizing lotion on dry skin
With type 1 diabetes, you are also at risk of developing conditions such as hearing loss, gum disease, or yeast infections (in women), eye disease, Kidney disease and heart disease and stroke.