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What are Neurological Disorders?

Medikoe Health Expert

Medikoe Health Expert

  Koramangala, bengaluru, karnataka, india, Bengaluru     Feb 8, 2017

   4 min     

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Neurological disorders are diseases of the peripheral and central nervous system. In simple, they are the disorders related to; the brain, spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerves, nerve roots, peripheral and autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscles. There are over 600 neurological disorders; therefore we cannot be specific with the numbers.

The common neurological disorders are given below:

1. Epilepsy

It is a condition where transient loss of consciousness is found for a certain period which may last from few seconds to few minutes. It happens because of abnormal electrical activity and may become unconscious or very confused. The seizures appear due to unusual activity in just one area of the brain. It is called the focal (partial) seizures. These seizures fall into two categories:

  • Focal seizures without loss of consciousness. 
  • Focal seizures with impaired awareness.

The symptoms of Epilepsy:

  • Sudden jerks in arms
  • Drooling
  • Fatigue
  • Body ache
  • Strange feeling
  • Sudden blackout & fainting
  • Twitching or trembling of muscles

2. Alzheimer

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in older people. The most striking symptom is memory loss, especially the loss of recently learned information. Other symptoms include a decline in the ability to absorb the reason, make judgments, and communicate and carry out daily activities.

The length of the illness can vary from 3 to 20 years. The areas of the brain that control memory and thinking skills are affected first, but as the disease progresses, cells die in other parts of the brain.

Alzheimer’s disease shortens life, and people with AD are vulnerable to pneumonia, serious falls, infection and other related problems.

The causes of Alzheimer:

Alzheimer’s is caused due to a combination of genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Though the causes are not precisely known, the results are. The brain cells die faster in people suffering from Alzheimer’s, and thus patients have less number of brain cells and connections. This may be due to many factors like:

  • Age
  • A history of Alzheimer’s or other mental illnesses in the family.
  • Specific diseases like Down’s syndrome.
  • Poor lifestyle and environment, leading to poor overall health, and hence, poor functioning of the brain.

The symptoms of Alzheimer’s:

  • Memory loss
  • A problem in doing daily chores
  • Difficulty in commuting and keeping track of time
  • Issues in language and communication
  • Difficulty in coping up and mood swings

Diagnosis and Treatment:

If you have one or more of the above symptoms, do not ignore and visit a doctor or a professional for treatment. Once diagnosed, the following methods of treatment are used:

  •  Administering medicine and drugs: Currently, many antidepressants or other drugs are in use to help with Alzheimer’s. These medications also help with memory symptoms and other cognitive changes.
  • Creating a better environment: There is no definite cure for dementia, and people suffering from it should be kept in a safe and positive environment.
  • Eating habits: People with dementia require special care when it comes to food and drinking. They may forget to eat or keep themselves hydrated, so care must be taken in this matter.
  • Exercise: Doing exercise makes people with dementia feel better. It also helps them get proper sleep and rest. They can also find mental activities suited to them to help memory and retention.

3. Dementias

Dementia is an umbrella term used to describe a decline in mental ability that is severe enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer disease is the most common type of dementia. Many dementias are progressive as the symptoms begin to show up slowly and gradually get worse, destroying the brains functioning.

Vascular dementia, Lewy Body disease, head trauma, frontotemporal dementia, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease can all cause symptoms of dementia.

Common symptoms of Dementia:

  • Memory loss
  • Difficulty in doing small tasks’
  • Speaking difficulties
  • Lose interest in hobbies or activities that they once previously enjoyed
  • Sudden and rapid mood swings, along with changes in personality
  • Difficulty to make an appropriate judgment such as what to wear during cold weather or where to park the car
  • Forgetting where they put their things and find it hard to locate them
  • Becoming repetitive

4. Migraine

A migraine is a neurological disorder that causes headaches occurring repeatedly ranging from moderate to high intensity. Specific physiologic changes that occur within the brain and lead to the characteristic pain and associated symptoms results in a migraine headache. It is usually associated with sensitivity to sound, light, and smells. A migraine often involves only one side of the head, but in some cases, patients may experience pain on both sides. The tormenting pain that migraines bring can last for hours or even days.

Causes of a migraine:

Triggers cause a migraine. Few of the triggers are:

  • Hormonal changes during menstruation, menopause, etc.
  • Emotional triggers like Stress, depression, anxiety, excitement, and shock
  • Physical causes like tiredness and insufficient sleep
  • Triggers in the diet like nuts, alcohol, etc.
  • Medications
  • Environmental factors

The symptoms of a Migraine:

  • A headache (throbbing or pulsing)
  • Blurred vision
  • Sensitivity to light, sounds, and smell
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Lightheadedness


For more information please consult with your healthcare specialist. You can even find one here on Medikoe. 


Tags:  brain,neurology,

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